Answer TWO questions only
The total number of questions is FIVE
All questions carry equal marks
Cross through/delete any material you do not wish to be considered
No credit will be given for additional questions attempted
Douglas McGregor challenged the Scientific Management school of thought by proposing
two distinct views of human beings: Theory X and Theory Y. Describe and contrast these
opposing views and, using examples, discuss their relevance to management in the modern
Critically assess Mintzberg’s view of the classical, deliberate, formal model of strategic
planning. Discuss, using examples, the extent to which his alternative, emergent planning
model represents a more realistic view of how the strategic planning process operates in a
Use Porter’s Five Forces to analyze the industry of an organization of your choice. Critically
assess how managers can use the model as part of the strategic planning process.
Compare and contrast the rational model and administrative models of decision making.
Use examples to illustrate your discussion, showing how the application of these models
might enhance a manager’s understanding of the decision-making environment.
Define the key elements of the Cultural Web model. Applying the model to an organization
of your choice, illustrate how its application might enhance the ability of the practicing
manager to better understand the nature of the organization’s internal environment.
Start your answers here. Please ensure to
label your answers clearly for marking clarity (ie Question 1,
Use Porter's Five Forces to analyse the industry of an organization of your
choice. Critically assess how managers can use the model as part of the
strategic planning process.
"Strategic planning is the process by which a system maintains its competitiveness
within its work environment by determining where the organization is, where it wants
to go, and how it will enable to corporation or association to prosper in future" Marios
A well-planned strategy is a key success that will lead any organization to reach its
goals. A strategy involves a plan that sets an image of the organization's surrounding
environment and helps to understand its position among other rivals.
Without a strategy, the business will struggle to understand the forces affecting their
profitability, while not acknowledging these factors will negatively impact the
The first step towards analysing an organization's competitive environment
surrounding the business is by applying analysis models like PESTLE, Porter's five
forces, and SWOT. These analysis tools will allow the organization to identify the
specific factors that help define the business's competitive landscape.
Porter's Five Forces model is a valuable strategy tool aiming to evaluate the
competitive environment for organizations. This model considers the specific factors
shaping the competitive environment around the organization and helps to recognize
the business's strengths and weaknesses.
"The tool was created by Harvard Business School professor Michael Porter, to
analyse an industry's attractiveness and likely profitability. Since its publication in
1979, it has become one of the most popular and highly regarded business strategy
tools." (Porter's Five Forces: – Understanding Competitive Forces to Maximize
The Porter Five Forces are:
The threat of new entrants
Bargaining power of suppliers
Bargaining power of buyers
The threat of substitute services
Rivalry among existing players
(Porter's five forces analysis, 2020)
This essay will aim to analyse the strategic planning of Royal Mail using Porters' Five
Forces model and evaluate the company management decisions and whether they
can effectively implement the theory in their organization structure. Royal mail
managers can apply the model to develop a plan to improve the company's
Brief introduction of Royal Mail:
Royal Mail is a postal service and courier company based in the United Kingdom,
originally established in 1516. The company's subsidiary, Royal Mail Group Limited,
operates the brands Royal Mail (letters) and Parcelforce Worldwide (parcels).
General Logistics Systems, an international logistics company, is a wholly owned
subsidiary of Royal Mail Group. (Wikipedia. Royal Mail.7 June 2018)
Threats of new entrants:
New players in the industry put significant pressure on Royal Mail, therefore brings
innovation and encourage the company to reduce the costs of their services and
adopt a lower pricing strategy.
The easy access to the distribution network can bring daily new challenges to royal
mail as new companies can set up their channels and start working in a brief time.
This threat of new entrants is a strong force within this field. However, this field's
government policies require strict legal conditions to be met before a new company
can start working.
Also, this field's capital needs are incredibly high, making it harder for a new
business to establish itself as a competitive player. These factors make a lower force
for new players within this industry.
Royal Mail managers should tackle these threats by offering new products and
services to their customers. Additionally, spending more money on research and
training and most significantly on marketing to build a powerful brand reputation. This
should help to grow their client base considerably.